Monkeypox virus is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, including variola (smallpox) virus , vaccinia (the smallpox vaccine) virus, cowpox virus , camelpox virus. Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus and can be spread from person to person through direct contact with the infectious rash, scabs, or body fluids. It also can be spread by respiratory secretions during prolonged, face-to-face contact, or during intimate physical contact. Endemic monkeypox is generally self-limited, with clade-dependent case fatality rates of 1-10%.The monkeypox virus typically incubates for 7-14 days before symptoms appear, symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, and swollen lymph nodes, followed by a rash.
Although Monkeypox virus is a DNA virus, its entire life cycle occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells. All the proteins required for viral DNA replication, transcription, virion assembly, and egress are encoded by the MPXV genome.In vaccinia virus (VACV) (and most in likely MPXV) intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular-enveloped virus (EEV) are two forms of infectious virions produced in poxvirus-infected cells. IMV is released on cell lysis, while EEV is released from cells via interaction with actin tails, and this is said to be the cause of rapid long distance spread of the virus within the infected host. Although the aforementioned features are for VACV, it is likely that these features are common to all OPVs.